The Ultimate Guide to Winter Bike Tires and Studded Tires

Everything you need to know about Studded Tires and Ice Bike Tires

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Your tires determine how safe you’ll be out on the road this 2019/2020 winter season.

So, have you checked yours lately? We’ll make it easy for you to shop like a pro and look after your tires like an expert cyclist. Everything you need concerning winter bike tires can be found here.

We’ll teach you about different types and then review some of the best studded bike tires on the current market. That’s shopping made easy!

Ready to upgrade your bike?

In many instances normal mountain bike tires work fairly well for winter riding.

Trail riding (often following snowmobile tracks) can be done with normal tires if you let some air out so that you are running at the lowest pressure you can get by with. For normal tires, this might be pressures down to 15 pounds, plus or minus a few depending on terrain and your weight.

It is possible with wider rims to get down to 5 to 10 PSI at these low pressures, keeping the tire on the rim can be problematic. The tire wants to slip around the rim when riding, which can sheer valve stems.

Many riders use a light rubber based glue on the bead to hold it in place. All Weather Sports reports that “based on observation of when and where tires at low pressure move on the rims, it’s not because of braking. It’s not from driving forces either. But they do move. And sometimes a lot in a short ride. Rubber cement hasn’t proven itself strong or reliable enough that I’d recommend it anymore. We use 3M Fast Tack for all commercial work.” (these guys supply wheels and tires to many Iditasport racers).

Given a choice, go for the most open tread you can find, one with widely spaced lugs with sloped sides. Small closely spaced lugs or square cut lugs do not shed snow as well as open design. Those tires recommended for soft dirt work well in semi packed snow such as found on trails or snowmobile routes.

Specialized winter bike tire (off road)This picture shows an old Specialized with rounded lugs. Where the knobs attach to the tire they are joined by a small radiuses transition. There are no real tight spaces between the lugs.

This tire did not tend to pick up snow, and the tread did not fill in with compacted little snow balls. It is a fairly soft tire and works well on moderately packed snow such as snow mobile trails and wind packed lakes.

Note: This tire, like many others these days, has a preferred “direction of rotation” that should be observed when mounting. Those big transverse ridges as seen on the lug in the center should face rearward when they are in contact with the snow for the back wheel and the ridge should face forward when in contact on the front wheel. This tire is pictured as it would look from the top if the direction of travel was to the right and the tire was correctly mounted on the front wheel (not all tires are directional).

Richie winter bike tire (off road)The second is a Richie tire has tighter lugs with square cut bottoms. This tire is in very new condition, and it has been retired from my icebike because these smaller, tighter spaced lugs tended to fill with snow when the tire was run at low pressures.

Its a great dirt tire, but snow is more exacting. Climbing a slight incline, it was easy to spin this tire out. It also threw a bigger rooster tail of snow, which indicated lots of snow was sticking to it.

Now, before you go out and trash your existing tires, let me say that these differences in tread are not show stoppers, and your existing tires may work just fine in off road conditions. Take them out and try them.

If you find yourself slipping or spinning out a lot, consider new tires, but some tires will surprise you with how well they work, such as the Continental road tires below. Several icebikers report good results with some of the Ritchey line, so don’t take my criticism of the above tire as a general condemnation of this company.

Note: Your normal rims will work ok, as long as you don’t let too much air out of the tire, say not less than 12-15 PSI.

For serious off road snow riding, extra wide rims and very low pressure tires are called for. The best of these is the SnowCat rim. This rim is VERY wide, nearly twice as wide as a normal rim, and not all bikes can accommodate it and not all tires will fit it. But when you find the right combination you will have a very wide low pressure tire that can float over slightly compacted snow, opening large areas to winter off road cycling.

My Ritchey Speedmax’s were not up to the task of riding on ice – not surprisinlgy. So I bought a pair of Ritchey AlfaBite and OmegaBite tires. First time out was a frozen Sunday afternoon – it had been warm the day before, and since then all the slush had turned to ice on the trails.

These tires were more than up to the task. My confidence grew as the ride progressed. What’s more, they work well enough on the road as well. Ritchey know’s what they are doing.

Stephen Slayto

The Best 5 Studded Bike Tires of 2020/2021

You can see how important an investment in proper studded bike tires is if you really want to enjoy your bike 12 months a year, right? For winter, a few small metal pins could mean the difference between enjoying the view or ending up in hospital because you slipped while making a turn. So, I’m going to show you which studded bike tires are the best. As promised, here are my detailed reviews.


1# Review of SCHWALBE Marathon Winter HS 396 Studded Road Bike Tire

SCHWALBE Marathon Winter HS 396 Studded Road Bike Tire – The Always Ready Tire

 If you know you’re going to face some challenging terrain such as ice patches, ruts in the snow-covered ground or even powder snow, these are the studded bike tires you want on your bike. Yes, your own skill will determine whether you stay upright, but as long as you counter steer at the right moments, these wheels WILL retain grip.  

We were surprised at how much snow this tire can actually help you cope with. In most cases, you’ll remain in control of your bike even if you’re in 3” of snow. In fresh snow you can push it up to 5” and you’ll still be relatively safe.

Of course, your entire neighborhood may not be covered in snow so you want the bike to perform well on regular surfaces like asphalt too. With these, you’ll be amazed that despite the studs making some noise you won’t experience irritating vibrations. The brand really hit an exceptional balance in the design.

  • Exceptional quality
  • Well trusted brand
  • Works in all conditions
  • Wire beaded design

Advice for Using this Tyre

It’s important to consider how you’re utilizing your cycling gear and with these studded bike tires you should regularly test the pressure. For optimum safety and performance, minimum pressure is best.

Important for any cyclist: what do you do once you get home? DO NOT let this tire roll over your floors because the tungsten carbide studs will leave scratches. It’s safe on carpets, but almost any hard surface will suffer.

To see what people experienced when they tested them out, for commuting and other scenarios, have a look at this video.

It’s no wonder why this is a crowd favorite: Schwalbe is an exemplary brand and the HS396 winter bike tires deliver in terms of performance. You’ll retain grip and enjoy your bike even on the coldest, iciest days.


#2 Review of Nokian Hakkapelitta 700×32 72 Steel Studs

Nokian Hakkapelitta 700×32 72 Steel Studs – Tough and Trustworthy

 As mentioned in this article, Nokian is one of the best brands for studded bike tires you can consider. And this Hakkapelitta design shows you exactly why Nokians can be found on many professionals’ bikes.  

The tires will ensure a safe ride even if you’re on icy terrain or in 3” of snow. The positioning of the studs plays an important role: studs are located on the sides of the tire, giving you grip when riding through icy or snow covered tracks.

  • 72 studs
  • Easy to put on rims
  • Gives grip on ice and snow


#3 Review of ARISUN Tires SHARKTOOTH

ARISUN Tires SHARKTOOTH – Riding with a Bite

 ARISUN uses another unique approach to stud placement in this tire. The 152 studs are positioned in the form of Vs. This provides you with traction the entire time the wheel is rolling.  

You can also trust the studs themselves, thanks to their quality: they’re made of zinc-plated steel with a tungsten alloy tip.

  • V shaped stud placement
  • Tungsten steel
  • Durable

Advice for Using this Tyre

If you’re shopping on a budget, you can consider only placing a studded tire on the front wheel. Some riders still manage enough grip to travel safely with this setup.

This is another brand you can trust for longevity. Very seldom would you lose one of the studs on the winter bike tires.

Try out a unique design with the V-shaped placement and know you’ll be safe on the road for a long time.

#4 Review of Kenda Klondike 27.5 x 2.10“ Studded Tire

Kenda Klondike Tire – Affordable AND Awesome

 From Kenda you can consider purchasing the Klondike studded bike tires. 

One of the first things you’ll notice is the weight because these are heavier than some others. When you compare rolling resistance it may be slightly less impressive than the normal tires of your mountain bike. But that doesn’t mean they don’t work: they’re still highly valued, especially by commuters looking for an affordable tire option.

  • Great for commuting
  • Reasonable rolling resistance
  • Impressive grip on ice
  • Affordable price range

Advice for Using this Tire

Be prepared to lose a few studs with this brand, especially if you ride on rough terrain. This can become a problem over time, but remember, you can always replace the studs if you feel you don’t get enough grip anymore.

This brand may not be as impressive as the more expensive Nokian, so be prepared to replace them after 1000 miles or so.

If you want to see them in action, watch this.

Overall, the Kenda Klondike tire is ideal if you’re new to riding in snow and shopping on a budget: make sure you’re safe while you’re saving up for more advanced gear.

#5 Review of SCHWALBE Ice Spiker Pro Folding Winter Clincher

SCHWALBE Ice Spiker Pro Folding Winter Clincher – Best Shedding Tire

 The last item on our list is also from the popular brand SCHWALBE. 

As with the other SCHWALBE model mentioned above, you can look forward to a firm grip on snow or icy terrain. Even if you ride in mud these winter bike tires will serve you well. And they’re known to shed mud, ice or snow easily to ensure you keep enjoying good traction.

  • Requires break in period on asphalt
  • Sheds well
  • Grips on mud, ice and snow

Advice for Using this Tyre

When using any gear to improve safety it’s important to look at guidelines set by the brand. With this product from SCHWALBE, note that the manufacturer advises them to be used for 25 miles on normal asphalt before putting them to the test on snow or ice. This will ensure the studs are forced into place permanently. For your own safety, I suggest you purchase these studded bike tirees in the summer before the snow falls and take time to prepare your bike for winter.

You can’t go wrong with SCHWALBE and these studded bike tires will serve you well for a long time. Just remember that break-in period!

Home Made Studded Tires

Brians studded tires, diagramYou can manufacture a studded bike tire for far less than you can buy one. This usually involves installing screws through the casing, from the inside. This usually necessitates a tire liner (perhaps just a extra dead tube) to prevent damage from screws that back out, or abrasion from screw heads.

Home made studs are usually heavy, and prone to flats. However, most serious bike riders have the necessary spare knobbies laying around and with a few cheap materials you can have a lot of fun out on the lake.

Home made studded tiresBrian Buehner had a page where he gives detailed instruction for some SERIOUS off road tires. These are designed to prevent sheet metal screws (studs) from backing out.

The following method is recommended by the Edmonton Bicycle Commuters Society.

This is what you need to make your very own studded tire:

  • One tire. You need a tire with knobs big enough to support the stud. the stud as explained further down, has to be on the
  • 50 (approx.) Robertson head #8 by 1/2″ sheet metal screws (the square head, you’ll thank me for this tip) for mountain bike tires (26inch) or #8 by 3/8 inch for hybrid tires (700c)
  • Liner for each tire. This can be made by cutting the beads off an old tire, cutting out the valve and slitting along the inside of an inner tube or just buying a Mr. Tuffy tire liner.
  • Baby powder.
  • One sharp awl. (or a 1/8″ drill bit)


  • Count the knobs and evenly spread out the 25 screws for each side.
  • Punch holes, from the outside of the tire, into the designated knobs. You can drill the hole, however, drilling tends to tear the fabric and thus weakens the tire. Caution you don’t need a million screws in there! Too many screws just slows you down.
  • Use Robertson bit in the drill to drive the screws in the tire from the inside.
  • Put liner inside tire and make sure it covers the screw heads
  • Put a generous dusting of baby powder between the liner and the tube.
  • Mount tire on the rim (ouch! watch out for the points!)
  • Inflate to maximum pressure. Put the wheel on the bike (mind the points). Spin the wheel to make sure that the studs don’t catch on anything.

You only need to stud the front tire to keep upright; however, if you stud the back tire as well, it’s even better. One caveat is that these tires are only suitable for winter conditions.

The difference between one studded front and no studded tires in phenomenal. When the bike is travelling straight the studs shouldn’t be hitting the road too hard; otherwise, they will just wear out too soon. Don’t worry, when the tire slips just a bit the studs will bite in. You rarely notice the slight side to side movement.

You don’t need to stud the middle knobs since you only need the added traction when you are turning. The studs should touch the road enough to allow sufficient braking. The studs in the middle knobs wear out very fast and soon become useless anyway.

Stainless steel screws will last much longer, but also cost about 3 times as much. You can change screws as they wear out, your tire can survive several sets of studs.

Are All Studs Created Equal?

As arranged on the Icebike mailing list, I volunteered to perform hardness tests on a few studs from winter bicycling tires. Several others agreed to send samples of studs and shortly I received studs from 3 different studded tires: Nokian, IRC, and Nashbar, to measure their hardness.

At last I have the stud hardness test results! The following is my report.

A little background first

In a hardness test, a small indenter (in this case made of diamond) is pressed into the surface of a metal sample with a known force. The result is a small impression, and the size of the impression is an indication of hardness. The smaller the impression, the harder the material.

The term “Hardness” is really a measure of the ability of a sample to resist indentation, and in itself it is meaningless, and only becomes useful when compared to the hardness of something else. There is a definite relation between hardness and strength and wear resistance. Harder materials are stronger and more wear resistant.

To measure the hardness, the sample must be properly prepared. Standard metallographic technique is to embed the sample in a plastic “mount” which allows the technician to hold the sample in proper alignment for preparation. In this case, the studs were laid on their side in the mount. The face of the mount was ground down, and in the process the studs themselves were partially ground away.

In this case, we ground the mount until about half the studs were ground away, revealing a cross-section through the stud centerline. This surface is then polished to a mirror smooth finish, since the hardness impressions are microscopic and surface imperfections could affect the result, thus the need for a flat smooth surface.

Here is an image of the prepared mount with the ground and polished studs showing their cross sections.

Studs, cross sections

It can be seen that the studs have a “T” shape cross section. There is a head at one end (like a nail head), a body, and a tapered end, which is the “business” end of the stud that makes contact with the ground.

Now the results

It is immediately obvious that the Nokian and IRC studs are made from two pieces: the stud body which is steel, and an insert brazed into the center of the stud. It is the brazed insert that is in contact with the ground, and the body is simply a holder. The Nashbar stud is a single piece of steel.

The Nokian insert had a hardness of 1700 KN (Knoop hardness scale). The IRC insert had a hardness of 1400 KN. The Nashbar had a hardness of 350 KN (corresponding to about 57 HRC for those who care about such things).

The Nashbar stud is by visual examination and hardness testing, simply hardened steel. It was harder on the surface than in the center, which implies a low alloy and/or low carbon steel (ie: less expensive steel), as something this small should harden throughout its thickness when heat treated – there should be no hardness gradient.

I made no attempt to identify the composition of the IRC or Nokian inserts (that would have been a bit expensive), but my best guess is they are “carbide”, a very hard, wear resistant material commonly used for high wear applications like metal working tools, saw blade edges, and so on.

A word of caution: Don’t try to attach a “value” to the relative hardness of the studs. The Nokian is not “5 times better than the Nashbar” nor will it “last 5 times longer”. All that can be said is that the Nokian and IRC are “substantially harder and will be much more wear resistant” than the Nashbar.

As a metallurgist, and knowing the environment these tires run in, I would be very surprised to see significant wear on a Nokian or IRC stud, whereas on road surfaces, I would expect wear on the Nashbar. Running on dirt or ice the Nashbar may hold up much longer.

On a personal note, I am impressed with the degree of technology exhibited by the Nokian and IRC tires. There is considerably more cost involved in preparing the stud to receive the insert, and then going through the brazing process, compared to the Nashbar stud which is simply machined and then heat treated. I can understand why the Nokian tire is so expensive!

Background reading: Microhardness Testing

By Bill Dobson

Update: The Nashbar tires tested in this article are NOT the current tires offered by Nashbar and reviewed here. The tires mentioned here were an earlier variety than the current tires, and by all reports the current tires are of much better quality and have much better studs.

Tire chains

In addition to studded tires for supplying winter traction there are also bike tire chains and bike tire wires.

These usually attach to the tires, while avoiding the bike rims so as not to interfere with the brakes. The chains cross the tread providing traction in deep snow and ice. The wire variety usually holds chunks of metal with teeth positioned over the tread.

These of course provide a bumpy and noisy ride on pavement, compared to studded tires, which themselves are noisy enough.

However, some claim that bike chains provide better traction than studs in thick snow and that brown compacted but un-consolidated squirming mass that forms when cars drive over new snow but it is too warm for it to freeze to the ground. (Also known as brown sugar, chocolate mousse, car snot, etc.)

When on really snowy roads, you may not notice the bumpy ride caused by the devices.


Tire chains for winter cyclingTire chains for bikes are far more lightly constructed than those for cars. They also have the attendant problem that the tire rims must not be obstructed because that would interfere with the brake pads. This later restriction does not apply to coaster brake bikes or bikes with disk brakes.

Therefore, the chain system is rather tenuously secured on the outer half inch of tire tread.

These can come off in sudden turns where there is good traction, so they must be installed tightly.

The normal way to achieve the degree of tightness that is required is to deflate the tire somewhat, install the chains, then re-inflate the tire so that the chains are held securely. This of course means that if you intend to do this on the road you have to have a pump.

Tire chains for winter cyclingThe model shown here, Quik Klaw Cleats by KoolStop uses a long threaded barrel on one end of the “ladder like” set of wires and cleats and a threaded bolt on the other end.

There is one junction on each side of the tire. These are usually just installed “finger tight” (no tools used) and the the tire inflation is raised to lock them in place. This can be done with out removing the wheel, but you have to carry a pump.

The cleats shown in the model above protrude about a quarter of an inch above the tread. Bikes with brake bridges or tight fitting chainstays may have clearance problems. Not all models have cleats this large, some are simply another metal cord running across the tread.

Cleats tend to be spaced every 6 inches or so, and this produces a very bumpy ride on hard ice or bare roads. So much so that you will want to take them off as soon as possible. Cleat wear can be very rapid if ridden on dry roads.

When you do remove them, they are customarily rolled up and placed in your panniers. The set show make a 6 inch diameter roll, rolling them tighter makes for nasty tangles.

Other than the rough ride there have been other problems reported with these devices. My local bike store owner reported that they sold only two sets last winter (different brands), and had trouble with both of them. One caused a nasty accident when it came loose and seized the front wheel. This is apparently not that rare.

There are several brands and bike shops tend to push what they have (probably because they have had them for years and years and would like to get rid of them). Monitor Traction Devices seem toe be the most widely known. The Quik Klaw Chains at right are also sold by KoolStop.

I also found an interesting hint of another system at that is comprised of hooks, which fit between the rim and tire, wrapping around the tire. When traction is required, a chain is stretched from one hook to the other – across the tire.

Home made chains

It is also possible to make your own tire chains for bike use. Not limited to winter ice and snow, these are also suitable for mud and off road work. While probably inappropriate for public trails over delicate ecosystems, they should work well on semi-frozen snow trails if your bike has the clearance to accommodate them.

What’s best, studded tires or chains

Chains are said to be better on unplowed roads and trails where there may be 6 inches of uncompressed snow below your wheels, some of it trampled and uneven.

Others claim that the newest version of studded tires do better in these situations and are lighter and less problematic.

I don’t have an opinion, as my bikes have clearances that are too tight to accommodate these devices, but here are some postings from Rec.Bicycles.Misc newsgroup courtesy the Danenet Bicycle Commuting Pages that deal with this subject.

Another Opinion

Back when I owned no vehicle (insert favorite poor student story here) I commuted year-round by bike. This included the winters from 1987 to 1993. Most of these winters were in the Northern city of Edmonton where we have two seasons: Winter and July ;^)

After a couple of winters on my usual knobbies, I felt there had to be a better solution to traction on ice and snow since I now faced a 24 km round trip to school and back. I contemplated the (at that time) new IRC Blizzard, but it looked like the studs were useless, and at $85/tire (boy, have they ever come down in price) I couldn’t justify the expense.

The store offered me another solution: tire chains. I purchased one for the front tire and decided to try it for awhile before deciding whether one was required for the rear wheel.

Unfortunately, I have no recollection of who the manufacturer was. I can only describe it. It was made out of a very durable metal, roughly the thickness of a wire coat hanger. This wire was bent so that it consisted of about 1″ to 1 1/2″ long links and about the same width. Where each link joined, the loose ends of the wire were allowed to point outward by about 3/8″ at both sides to dig into the snow.

I say the metal was tough, because these protrusions didn’t bend over even after 2 (long) winters of usage (est. 4000 km).

My experience with the tire chain up front was very positive. These babies stuck to the hardpacked snow like you wouldn’t believe! The main drawback was that bare pavement, etc. was to be avoided because traction wasn’t great (and it would probably prematurely wear down/bend the spikes). Also, there was greater rolling resistance.

One distinct advantage to having the chain on the front tire for me was the ability to use the front brake. My rear brake was one of those under the chainstay mounted U-Brakes which were popular in the early 80’s. The front tire flung all sorts of gunk into the brake cable housing where it was routed under the bottom bracket. I rarely ever had a working rear brake!

I only ever recall one wipeout while using the front tire-chain. The rear wheel swung out on me with no warning and I was unable to stop its momentum as it quickly swung about in front of the front wheel. The front tire held its ground and the handlebars were wrenched out of my hands. Eventually something had to give, and I went flying!

Overall, I was quite pleased with the tire chain and never got around to purchasing a rear tire chain. Unfortunately after the second winter, the chain rusted up very badly during the off-season (summer! :^) ). I was never able to find another chain, but I also didn’t look too hard since we had a few milder winters, I lived closer, I had a new bike so rear brake freezing was no longer a factor.

Bruce Johnson

Rims and wheels

This section is retained for historical reasons – and before you go out and spend your money, let me say you DON’T normally need special rims for regular commuter icebiking or recreational winter riding.
The wheels depicted on this page are specialty items, usually used for off road riding, on single track, partially frozen trails, or snowmobile tracks. Most commuters never encounter the need of these rims unless substantial portions of your route are on un-maintained trails.

However, for the recreational icebiker the wide rims described here open up significant new opportunities for exploration and fun in areas you have never ventured, perhaps not even in summer.

Why special rims?

Part of the problem is pounds per square inch (kg per square cm). Riding on semi-frozen snowmobile trails or single track, or crusted-over lakes, you will break through the softer portions, your front wheel will sink, and you may do an Endo. The surface simply can not support the amount of weight you and your bike apply.

At 40 PSI, 200 pounds of bike and rider will we carried on 5 square inches on the bottom of your bike tires. This will be split roughly evenly between the two tires. The trouble is, the snow can not bear 100 pounds on just 2.5 sq. inches. So you sink. You keep on sinking until the amount of tire in contact with the snow spreads the same amount of weight to more and more square inches of snow. Once you have enough inches of tire on (under) the snow, you stop sinking.

More square inches on the ground helps

The other part of the problem is the shape of the tire. In cross section, the mostly rounded shape of the typical bike tire causes it to slip sideways rather than just straight down. Down would be bad enough. Sideways requires steering input at the very least, may cause falls, and is ultimately unmanageable. Snow tends to “squirt” out towards the edges of the tire, rather then being packed down as the tire rolls over it.

A flatter tire cross section helps

Finally, when on really bumpy hardpack, or other uneven surfaces, high pressure tires can tend to follow ridges, (diverting you from your intended course), and bounce, breaking contact with the ground, reducing your traction, and allowing sideways momentum to be built up while the tire is in reduced contact with the ground. Softer tires tend to roll over small ridges and bumps, absorbing the bumps by deforming, while as the same time maintaining contact with the ground.

Lower tire pressure helps

Each of the above aids to off-road winter cycling has its own place. On rutted ice, lower pressure and a flat cross section are better. Glare ice calls for higher pressure. All three at once would be ideal for many off road situations in winter.

The only way to get all three at the same time is to run wide tires with a flat cross section at low pressure.

The problem is this is virtually impossible with a narrow rim, because if you lower the pressure enough to get a flat cross section you run the risk of snake bite (pinch flats) as the rim will bottom out inside the tire.

Additionally, much of the tires potential width it “consumed” by having the tire form a circle (in cross section). If the tire only had to form half of a circle, it would be a much wider circle. If you have ever spread a bike tire flat (pulling the beads away from each other) you were probably amazed how wide it was.

The Wide Rim Solution

Snow Cat wide rim solutionThese are exactly the conditions that Snow Cat rims were designed to meet. Designed by Simon Rakower of All Weather Sports in Fairbanks Alaska, the Snow Cat rim is 44mm wide, compared to 22mm or 32mm for normal mountain bike rims.

There are several other companies making wide rims for downhill races. Unlike Snow Cats, these were not designed with winter cycling in mind, and may be heavier. They are, however designed to take a beating and have similar width.

This extra width of wide rims provides for a flatter cross section to any tire mounted. This widens the contact patch, puts more square inches on the ground, meaning you can reduce pressure and still carry the same weight.

Further, with wide rims, the rim edges sits directly above the side wall, or, in some cases, outboard of the tire altogether. This reduces the risk that the your rim will bottom out inside the tire. Instead it will be riding above the sidewall of the tire. Hitting a bump with wide rims is far less likely to cause a pinch flat.

This means you can reduce air pressure even further. Reduced air pressure brings more tire in contact with the snow, as the contact patch is elongated (front to back).

Wide rim spreads tire, flattening it’s profile and positioning rims directly above side wall. Snake bite (pinch flat) is less likely.

Snow Cat wide rim solution

With regular rim, tire bulges out from both sides of rim. Hard bumps will drive rim down “inside” tire when run at low pressure. This can cause snake bite.

Solution with no Snow Cat rim

With more inches in contact with the snow, you are able to spread that same 100 pounds per tire over a greater area. At 10 PSI, the contact patch would be almost 10 square inches per tire. This is well within the load bearing capabilities of some snow surfaces, such as snowmobile trails, and slightly packed areas. With lower pressure, down to 5 PSI you might come close to 20 square inches per tire. Although you can reduce air pressure to as little as 5 PSI with ride rims, most riders maintain closer to 12 PSI as their minimum.

A Brief History of the Snow Cat Rim

I designed the Snow Cat for snow riding but there had been hints of interest in them for downhill racing from the beginning, so I didn’t go ultra-light on the cross section.

That turned out to be a good idea. For a few years DH sales exceeded winter sales. I started doing serious promotion at major DH events about five years ago and spent the next few years watching over my shoulder for the big companies to pick up on the idea and crush me. It took a surprisingly long time.

The bike industry is cash starved and very conservative. DH rim widths crept upward for a few years with Sun, Mavic and a few others watching each other and giving out BS reasons why really wide was a mistake.

Yet, people from the big rim companies would tell me they were glad I was making such wide rims because it took pressure off them to do it. I got lucky when Sun’s first really wide rim (Fat Albert) flopped. It was fun being on the right side of the rumor machine.

My product worked, the big company’s knockoff didn’t, consumer accounts about why it was bad were wild and widespread.

Nokian tire designer Jorma Tikka got interested in DH and came up with the idea of a tire sized to really fit on the Snow Cat.

Nokian took a bigger chance than I’ve seen any other large company do in the bike industry. They made a three inch tire (the Gazzalodi) when there was only one rim and NO BIKES to fit it.

They introduced it at the ’98 Winter X-treme Games. Within a few weeks there were plenty of bikes to fit it. I was swamped with calls from small DH frame builders wanting to know dimensions. The standard changed overnight.

So the little kitty led the DH world onto big rims and big tires. Eventually they got it right and there are now wide rims more suitable for DH than the Snow Cat.

But the monster rolled right past me and I didn’t get crushed. DH rims are very heavy, so the Snow Cat is the lightest of the big rims. Disc brakes are the standard for DH so very few of the wide rims have brake surfaces.

The market isn’t big enough for even one winter rim. I could only get it in production by doing silly, egotistical things with larger lumps of money than I should have. God bless the oil economy.

Rim manufacturers are smarter than I am and don’t seem to want to waste capital on a product with such limited appeal. So they try to do double duty with a DH rim. We’ll see where it all goes but I’m not afraid of competition. I took last winter off; went away and did no marketing and had no product. It would be amazing if no one tried to move into the (small) void.

One more thing I like about Snow Cats: I can drill them in any crazy way anyone wants even, (gasp), dishless rears. I mean really dishless, with identical spoke angles and tensions on both sides.

This is how Charlie Beristain just got his (you can see the offset spoke holes in the side-by-side pictures above). Ritchey may have “invented” OCR but I’d been making 0-dish Snow Cats for years before he did. Standard width rims can correct for dish by a few mm. Only a big flat rim lets you shift the (w)hole pattern the 10 mm needed to completely compensate for eight or nine gears.

Simon Rakower, All Weather Sports

The Disadvantages

Some riders report less control on glare ice surfaces when riding with real low pressure. This is not a problem caused by wide rims, just one you are not likely to run into until you have wide rims.

When you lower tire pressure, you also lower the amount of pressure on the studs. This is offset by bringing more studs into contact with the ice. However, at some point (around 5 or 7 pounds from all reports) you get so little weight on the studs that they do not dig into the ice at all. They simply skate on top of the ice, providing less traction than rubber tires.

On bare ice, it has been found that studded tires should be run at near their sidewall pressure, but you want to still show some sidewall flex while riding to reduce tire-bounce. Tire bounce can happen by hitting even small bumps with tires inflated quite hard. Normally not a problem in summer, but in winter when the wheel loses contact with the ground it may come down with a slight sideways momentum and slip out from under you.

Winter tire rimsAdditionally, there can be problems getting wide rims to fit on your bike. The front is seldom a problem, but the rear can be too narrow where the chain stays join the bottom bracket, or near the bridge on the seat stays.

In addition, it is hard to build a wheel with a wide rim and not end up with an excessive amount of “dish” in the rear wheel while trying to fit the gear cluster and the wheel inside the chainstays.
Many Snow Cat rims are drilled for off center spoke holes for the back wheel. This allows construction of a wheel with less “dish” than would otherwise be necessary, and provides the needed clearance and centering of the rear wheel.

Note that since these rims are usually used with quite low preasure, the plastic liner is all that is needed to keep the tube from protruding through the holes shown in this shot of the Snow Cal “SL” model These holes save over 600 grams per set of wheels.

There are also problems with getting brakes to work correctly. The rim is so wide that modification of the brake arm mounting and or the brake pads may be necessary. Some brake arms can actually give greater clearance when mounted backwards, as carefull study of the picture below shows. Those brake arms are designed to have that curved portion of the lever faceing the tire. By reversing each lever, more clearance is provided.

Winter tire brakes

For this reason Disk Brakes and wide rims are often found on the same icebike.

Winter tires with disc brakes

Finally, wide rims and studded tired can add as much as 4 pounds to your bike over the weight of your regular rims and tires, especially if you end up using down-hill rims. Much of this weight is attributed to the studded tires. If riding of packed snow, you may not need them.

Fat bikes in the snow


Wide rims provide all three of the desirable attributes needed for winter snow travel. They still do not provide adequate “flotation” to allow you to ride on top of powder snow or even heavy wet snow. However, snow that has thawed and refrozen, or been rained on is often firm enough to ride with wide rims and the proper tires. Winter snowmobile trails often prove quite navigable with wide rims.

Additionally, in loose snow, wide rims provide a greater measure of control, as the tires tend to wallow less with a flatter profile, and the reduced pressure keeps more tire in contact with the ground, (and more studs in contact with the ice). Handling is greatly improved, as is your speed over the ground. Some snow terrain is simply impossible without wide rims.

If you spend much time off road in winter you will likely sooner or later find your self on wide rims. They are virtually required equipment in some off-road races such as the Alaskan Iditasport, and add greatly to the capabilities of your bike on winter trails.

Photo Credits: Charlie Beristain, John Andersen, and Simon Rakower.

Also Read: 15 Best Bikes For Heavy Riders (Updated 2023)

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19 thoughts on “The Ultimate Guide to Winter Bike Tires and Studded Tires”

  1. Really well written and interesting article!

    However, since you mentioned being a metallurgist; what metal do the studs for winter tires come in? And what should I use to avoid rust?

    I had some winter tires before where the studs rusted. Causing stains on my floors as I have to bring the bike inside to park it.

    Thanks for any recommendations!

    • Try the new 45Nrth Gravdal folding winter tyre. It has tungsten carbide spikes in an aluminium housing, so at least that part will not rust. More studs than most in this size (252), plus, quite uniquely for a 700C, it has a folding kevlar bead and high thread count (120 TPI) which means it is lighter and more supple than the average winter “tractor” tyre. Very expensive but ygwypf.

  2. I have Suomi studded tires (ordered Nokian but these came, appear to be made by Nokian…) that worked great but are showing a bit of rust. What to do before I store them for the ‘warmer months’ here in Chicago.

  3. Interesting ideas ! I was enlightened by the details . Does someone know if my company could possibly get a blank TX 130-U copy to complete ?

  4. Hello,
    Are there any reasons why you did not discuss the Schwalbe line of winter bike tires? I have been riding Marathon Winter studded tires on two of my bikes in an urban street setting for many years (4th year on my Dahon folding bike and 2nd year on my hybrid winter bike conversion). I have nothing but good to say about them.

    • i have been using Schwalbe here in northern Sweden for 5 or 6 winters now and rate them as much more durable, especially when considering the rubber, than Nokian… i ride daily and have put many, many miles on these tires with only great things to say about them 😀 i only came here because i was curious about inserting studs to a 20″ front tire for a Bullitt frieght bike… otherwise i have no doubt that Schwalbe is the solution 😉

      • Is there a 20″ studded tire for a trail-a-bike that will match a 26″ winter tire (such as, for example, the Ice Spiker Pro Schwalbe tire or equivalent)? Thanks.

  5. If using homemade studded tires, can you just run tubeless tires and not worry about tire liners? Or will air leak out around the screws?

    • Tubeless with preparation. If installing regular screws drilled from inside out use a FLEXIBLE but strong contact cement on every screw head inside the tire. make sure to cover the heads with enough cement. Allow to dry for several days then add a layer or two of lightweight but strong adhesive tape. Allow to dry and stick completely to the tire over several days. Inflate the tire with sealant and test over several rides. There will be leaks but the sealant will take care of that. Using this tubeless setup and tire pair for 8 years with no issues. My best setup is 4 years old and still going strong as tubeless. I used screw in, carbide tipped studs outside in and dipped/sealed EACH stud with WATERPROOF Loctite flex adhesive. Magic Mary up front and Nobby Nic in the rear. approx 200 studs each tire. Great in deep snow, flawless on any kind of ice, ice ruts, etc. Make sure the studs are sized correctly (8mm amd 9mm in this case) and DO NOT penetrate the carcass of the tire. This is critical to preserve options for trailside flats using a tube. To this day I have not lost a single stud. A little worn but All the spares studs are sitting in the garage, waiting…..I do not ever use this setup on pavement. Happy Trails!

  6. Excellent blog! Do you have any hints for aspiring
    writers? I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m
    a little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a
    paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m completely
    overwhelmed .. Any ideas? Cheers!

  7. Thanks, great blog! I too am running Schwalbe Marathon’s in the winter (26×2.25). Work great on ice and are good in powder snow up to about 3″ or so… The tires do not have large knobs so they don’t do well in 2 or more inches of wet/heavy snow. Surprisingly a 700 x 28 road tire does quite well in untracked snow covered roads and trails. The tire will knife through several inches of snow and I found good traction.

  8. Hi,

    Grest Blog?

    Tell for a powerful E-BIKE?

    Which Ice stud tires should I buy?
    Spoke to Schwalbe, they said no ice studs for electricity? 🙁

  9. Given that your #1 recommendation is the SCHWALBE Marathon Winter, and that this blog is marked as being updated for 2019/2020, I’m surprised that you don’t mention the existence of the SCHWALBE Marathon Winter *Plus* which I believe may have come out in 2018?

    To me this tire offers nearly total upside to the non-Plus version, the only negative is higher price. The major difference is that there are four rows of studs across the width of the tire, I believe making the total stud count 210 on a 27″ tire. They appear to be equally spaced across the width — which means none run right down the middle. The advantage here is by adjusting tire inflation day to day, you control how many studs are engaged: for icy conditions keep pressure low so all four are in nearly constant contact with the ground, while on days the pavement is ice-free, maximum pressure means except when corning only the inner two rows of studs engage the pavement. I recall they also might have improved puncture resistance, the regular Marathon WInters are a “4” on their scale and the Plus are a “5?”

    p.s. for US readers, they were hard to find and crazy expensive here, at least back in 2018. I recall around $100 or ore each. But they were pretty affordable if you buy from a German seller and had them shipped, especially if you have other things to buy at same time and are paying flat rate shipping to US (I paid 25 euro shipping). Just be prepared to wait a few weeks!

  10. Hi I am making tinier homes Wich are capable of quarantine living in winter months. Shower, toilet, etc. With bicycle hitch. I am looking to recycle metal, and manufacture my own rims if necessitated. But really I want bicycle snow tires, and or an “off the shelf” tire and rim solution. 20″ is about the smallest for contact area and steerability on snow ice, any ideas for something like load bearing spoke sleeves, or something capable of spreading a 1000lbs load across 4 tires? Since my tinier homes only weigh about 250lbs dry weight, add two people at 250lbs each, and backpacks, that’s why 1000lbs… I am planning a solid tire core, and bearings other than bicycle bearings, perhaps a dual bearing (bicycle bearings, with the axle in secondary bearings in case of failure under power) driven by a DC motor set, for the eventuality of no tow trike, or self propelled movement for emergency use. Disk brakes, few gears, and low gears only. If you have ideas I am listening… Since it sounds like snow cats (from multiple sources)are the way to go, I am wondering if this is really viable or if I need to tool up for supplying my nitche market? As I am already attempting to stage small scale recycling, and product manufacture, I don’t mind doing it myself but a side by side price comparison, supply chain analysis, and or loan for overhead/stock, is much easier to approach with all the information, and options. Also quite honestly I might wind up using deer cart tires as a temporary alternative, but the ride will be hard to control, and bumpy like an alligator with warts… And backup drive system far more complex… Although I can get my weight rating all day. Also it parks on levelers at night to eliminate parking brake issues.

  11. It was always my understanding that with any kind of snow tire that you do not want the snow to shed (mud yes, snow no). This is why M&S (Mud and Snow) tires are a misnomer as one tire will not be good for both conditions.

    Mud will fill a tread and turn the surface into a smooth slippery surface that will not grip. Hence the need for deep, widely spaced lugs that shed the mud as best as possible. Snow, on the other hand, will stick in the tread and provide grip by the snow in the tire sticking to the snow on the road. I have read that the more the tread areas are perpendicular to the direction of ration that better grip you will achieve.

    The Saami from Finland wore snow boots made from reindeer hide with the animal’s fur still on them, including the soles. These would be treacherous to wear on your kitchen floor but the snow would pack and stick to the fur on the sole, which in turn would stick to the snow covered ground, providing excellent traction.

    Just some thoughts, I am sure there are a lot more factors at play when analyzing the performance of any winter snow tire. It’s just that I constantly read about large treads and “shedding snow” which in my experience is not what you want…cheers!


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